Can Blacks Sustain Civilization?

Fire blazes in the ruins of Detroit.
Liberals are constantly bombarding America with multiethnic propaganda, and encouraging the immigration of sub-Saharan Africans into the country.

In this author’s home town, an entire section of the city has been overrun by Islamic Africans who can’t speak a word of the English language.

Those who embrace ethnic pluralism expect Americans to believe these Third World foreigners are the future of our magnanimous Western civilization. 

As Christians concerned for the future of our communities, neighbors, and posterity, the question should be asked: can people of African ancestry sustain Western civilization with its complex institutions and cultural expressions? If not, Christians should not passively accept the destruction of our faith's civilization; this would benefit neither the world nor Christ's followers. It is time for Christians to start confronting the tough questions.

For those willing to look, there is a massive amount of data upon which to construct answers. I would like to argue that no historical truth is more certain than that Afroethnics are incapable of sustaining our civilization.

Evaluating the history of the now ruined city of Detroit, the now ruined continent of Africa, and the now ruined island of Haiti while comparing them with Japan and Puerto Rico should provide sufficient evidence to decide upon the ability of Afroethnics to sustain European civilization.


Once the largest factory in the world, Detroit's Packard Plant now stands in ruin.
Due to white flight, vast urban areas around America have been abandoned to African American residents. The most amazing example of this situation is the city of Detroit. After World War II, Detroit was one of the most prosperous cities in the world. It was given the nickname “Paris of North America.” [1]

In 1950, the city was the fifth largest in the country, with a population of 1,849,568. At the peak of the city's prestige (1940), European Americans were 90.7% of the population. [2] However, Detroit’s Euro-American population has shrunk considerably since the middle of the last century. This demographic decline has presaged a broader deterioration of the city’s reputation and importance.

Today, African Americans make up 82.7% of Detroit’s population (a near complete reversal of 1940), and the city has diminished to 680,250 inhabitants. [3]

In only a few years white flight caused the complete handover of one of the most distinguished cities in the world from Euroethnics to Afroethnics.

One significant reason for the rapid exodus of Euro-Americans from the city was African American violence. This was exemplified by the Twelfth Street Riot, the second largest and most destructive riot in United States history. European Americans, fearing for their lives, fled Detroit following the uprising. They left one of the most prosperous cities on earth in the hands of Afroethnics.

Prominent black economist Thomas Sowell commented on the riot:

“Before the ghetto riot of 1967, Detroit's black population had the highest rate of home-ownership of any black urban population in the country, and their unemployment rate was just 3.4 percent. It was not despair that fueled the riot. It was the riot which marked the beginning of the decline of Detroit to its current state of despair. Detroit's population today is only half of what it once was, and its most productive people have been the ones who fled.” [4]
Sowell conceded that the ethnic violence did not break out because African Americans were suffering a terrible economic situation, in fact, the opposite was true. This event alone speaks volumes about the effectiveness of multiethnic social arrangements.

The importance of Detroit’s historical situation is that by evaluating the last 60 years of the city’s history we find a nearly perfect case study of what happens when current Western prosperity and institutions are handed over to those of African descent. Detroit is exemplary in that it was not handed over to degenerate Afroethnics but, as Thomas Sowell said, the most prosperous Afroethnic people in America (and therefore the world).

The story of the decline and fall of Detroit is well known, and anyone interested should research it personally. [5] The collapse of Detroit following its Euroethnic population’s replacement by African Americans is so dramatic it appears almost unbelievable.

Detroit has fallen so far since the 1950s that today it is often compared to a post-apocalyptic environment. Much of Detroit is characterized by its remarkable similarity to a vacant dilapidated world in which humanity has suddenly been struck by a cataclysmic event.

In 2010, the History Channel aired a documentary called 'Apocalypse Man' in which host, Rudy Reyes, demonstrated how to deal with scenarios one might face after a catastrophic event suddenly ended civilization. The documentary was filmed in the ruins of Detroit. [6]

Recently, an ingenious entrepreneur presented plans for turning the deserted warehouses and neighborhoods of Detroit into a new theme park called Zombie World (or “Z World”). The park’s slogan was: “Everyone wants to live through a zombie apocalypse at least once.” [7] Several major news organizations ('TIME,' 'Detroit Free Press,' 'LA Times,' etc.) debated the plan with positive feedback.

In 2012, the city was in such bad shape that the mayor unveiled a plan to bulldoze (raze) 25% of it, [8] but Detroit was so broke the U.S. government had to give them twenty million dollars of federal stimulus money to start the demolitions.

In 2009, it was reported the city had nearly run out of food, and that groceries were being unloaded under the surveillance of armed military fatigued guards. [9] In fact, Detroit does not have a single supermarket, which forces its residents to get food at corner stores or discount chains.

The real unemployment rate of the city is 50%. [10]

Dave Schultz, a Police Crime Prevention Examiner for the city, had this to say about the state of law and order in 2012 Detroit: “The city is a virtual war zone and the Detroit Police Department is helpless at this time.” [11]

Shortly after that admission was made, the African American police chief Ralph Godbee was forced to resign after handing out promotions in exchange for sexual services. [12] It was reported that the Detroit Police Department had been turned into a “brothel.”

On October 8, 2012, Detroit police officers began handing out flyers to citizens that read: “Enter Detroit at Your Own Risk... Detroit is America’s most violent city. Detroit’s homicide rate is the highest in the country. Detroit’s Police Department is grossly understaffed.” Commenting on the flyers, police union attorney Donato Lorio said: “The DPOA believes that there is a war in Detroit, but there should be a war on crime, not a war on its officers.” [11]

Only half the population of Detroit can read. [13] The former president of the school board was functionally illiterate. [14]

Wikipedia contains an entire entry entitled 'The Decline of Detroit.' [15]

Some conservatives claim the city’s decline is due to liberal policy ideology rather than the ethnic group who now inhabits it. But if this were the case, why is Pittsburg, Pennsylvania a city ravaged by the collapse of the steel industry still considered a great place to live? Pittsburg is overwhelmingly liberal. The answer is obvious: Pittsburg is also overwhelmingly Euroethnic.

Why are Vermont, Maine, and Oregon such stellar places to live despite their socialist leanings? Answer: Because those places have predominantly European American populations.

I formally lived in Columbus, Ohio. Occasionally, I would drive through the economically disadvantaged parts of town. I saw once beautiful mansions built during the glory days of the city that had become miserable neglected ruins, and the neighborhoods they reside in are predominantly African American communities.

Some might retort that the ruined mansions of Columbus had only decayed with natural age, but the oldest residential part of the city, German Village, is a thriving upscale neighborhood now inhabited almost entirely by European Americans.

In the past, German Village had been ransacked by African Americans, and had become little more than a ghetto slum. Through a gentrification process, however, the Afroethnics were pushed out with higher living costs and the area was returned to an era of beauty and prosperity; an era which corresponded precisely with the return of Euroethnics.

This kind of experience has been repeated in different cities and suburbs across the country. Anyone with open eyes can see examples of Afroethnics being incapable of sustaining the civilization they have been given.

Wherever there is an Afroethnic majority there is also crime, ruin, and economic disintegration. It would be a challenge (probably impossible) to name a single predominantly African American area that most people would feel comfortable sending their children at night. It would be even more challenging to find a single African American area in which the average middle class European American would want to live?

Even the nicest “African American neighborhoods” are not majority African American. [16]


Africans wander through the ruins of a hotel abandoned after the end of white colonial rule.
In the late nineteenth century, Africa was still a mysterious continent about which little was known. There were no civilizations with which the European peoples communicated, there had never been any great armies that had marched out of the interior of that dark land, and there had never been anything on the other side of the continent that would warrant trade routes through it. Africa was largely viewed as a massive land obstacle around which the great European merchants were forced to travel on their way to the wealthy and prosperous people groups of the Far East.

Upon reaching Africa in the early fifteenth century, the Chinese ceased world exploration because they concluded that if the rest of the world’s population was Afroethnic there was nothing worth seeing. They reasoned that the rest of the world was filled with uncouth barbarians. [17]

In the nineteenth century, after squabbling for every other piece of the globe, European colonial empires had little left to conquer but the continent to their. Leopold II of Belgium took control of the Congo region, and consolidated it in 1890. The scramble for Africa began. Britain, France, Germany, and Italy began a decade’s long squabble to establish their own imperial prestige on the Dark Continent.

The African natives were little more than a nuisance along the European path to controlling the continent.

Once in the hands of the empires of Europe, administrators set about to make the African colonies prosperous for the mother countries and their inhabitants. They built railroads, mines, plantations, and attempted to educate the native tribal peoples to make them useful in the new Western system Africa had been thrust into.

Africa was (and still is) bursting with natural resources: diamonds, gold, cobalt, oil, and timber. These resources had never been utilized by the uncivilized aboriginals. The Europeans developed these industries and taught the natives how to utilize them. In the 1960s, much of Africa gained its independence from Europe. [18] When the African states launched into independence they were the subject of incredible interest. The United States and Soviet Union attempted to gain influence over every newly freed state, considering each one a valuable asset.

Since Europeans arrived in Africa, the natives had been experiencing steadily better living conditions. Only a few decades after their self-rule began, however, that trend was dramatically reversed as ruthless egomaniac dictators rose to power, AIDS ravished the continent, starvation set it, and civil wars ripped the region apart. Today, Africa is vastly different than what it was when the European empires released those new nations into independence. Africa has become synonymous with unfathomable underdevelopment, misery, and death.

I recently visited my grandparents, and the topic turned to my missionary great-uncle in Ghana. This uncle sends emails to my grandparents about life in Africa.

My uncle had recently sent an email about how the natives cook parts of chickens for a meal and eat the leftovers days later by simply scraping the maggots off the carcass. My grandfather said: “I just cannot comprehend how the people in Africa are so far behind?!”

My grandmother chimed in: “I just recently read an article talking about how many millions of people ‘WE’ have to feed in Africa this coming year... I just thought ‘don’t these people ever get to the point of being able to sustain themselves? Why is it our job to feed them?’”

My grandfather replied “I’ve come to think they just don’t have the discipline to do it for themselves.”

This family conversation began with a reference to the people of Ghana. Ghana was the most prosperous of all the African countries when it embarked on freedom in the 1960s. If the Ghanese still eat maggot filled meat and boil giant rats to feed the village, one can only wonder into what depths the rest of the continent has descended.

The church I usually attend recently had a missionary group visit for a demonstration, and to request donations for their well digging projects in sub-Saharan Africa. The demonstration included the typical statistics about how many African children die every week from having no water and was intended to make everyone feel bad for living in a wealthy country. Apparently, African children have to drink out of contaminated creeks and rain puddles.

The missionaries (all of European descent) explained how they designed a special kind of pipe well that could be drilled into the ground rapidly and efficiently.

Near the end of the demonstration, my friend leaned over to me and asked something to the effect: “I want so badly to ask him why the Africans can’t just dig traditional wells like natives do in the rest of the world. I mean, I feel like you and I with two shovels could dig a well in a couple days.”

After thinking about it, I decided I had to ask; after all, even Abraham and Isaac were digging wells 4,000 years ago.

Following the demonstration, I went forward and asked our question. The missionary immediately became confused and vague. He informed me that Africans did not usually dig traditional wells because children fell into them, drown, and cause contamination as their bodies decompose. He went on: “And the bats fly over and defecate in the water.”

All I could think was: “Is this a series answer?” Are African children really so dumb they can’t avoid falling into a huge hole and drowning? Are these children suicidal? Are the Africans really incapable of covering their wells at night to avoid bat droppings?

I posed these questions to the missionary. His answer: “It’s complicated.”

Question: If Europeans and Mesopotamians can dig traditional wells for thousands of years, until they developed machinery, why can’t modern Africans do it? Why did European children not fall into traditional wells and drown? Do European bats defecate?

The problem is not the situation. It's the people.

In 2005, the historian and African expert Martin Meredith wrote a book about the history of African independence entitled 'The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom, To the Heart of Despair.' The book’s subtitle is a good ten word summery of the history of the African people’s ability to govern themselves.

We can see what has happened to South Africa since the fall of Apartheid in 1995. The average personal income in that country has dropped 40% since Euroethnic rule ended. [19] Today, 25% of South African men admit they have raped a woman. [20] Fifty murders occur in South Africa every day. Together, they amount to more than 18,000 a year in a country of 48 million. [21] For perspective, Germany has 800 murders a year with a population of 81 million. [22]

The excuse given for South Africa is usually that it was under so many years of Euroethnic “oppression.” Germany, however, was twice destroyed in the last century, and half the country was looted by communists for decades before being absorbed back into the whole. Today, Germany is among the strongest world economies and, considering its place in modern Europe, is in a position to once again dominate the most power continent in human history.

Recently, Barack Obama’s own brother, George Obama, wrote a book entitled 'Homeland: An Extraordinary Story of Hope and Survival.'  In the book, he documents Kenya’s dismal state. George claimed Kenya would have been better off if its people had allowed the Europeans to rule over them for a longer period of time:

“let me tell you something. Look at South Africa they were under the whites until the 1990s, and look where they are now. They’re practically a developed nation. The corruption there is nothing like it is here. So who is better off? Maybe if we’d let the whites stay a bit longer, we’d be where South Africa is today.” [23]
Even a native Kenyon recognized that Euroethnic rule is the key to becoming a successful African state. We can only imagine how horrible Kenya must be if George Obama dreams of Kenya being more like South Africa.

One could fill many volumes with the tragedy of post-colonial Africa (and some books have been written): endless government instability, unheard tales of corruption, genocides, poverty scarcely imaginable to the Western mind, uncontrolled diseases wiping out millions, never ending civil war, etc, etc.

One particularly horrible incident is the former “emperor” of the Central African Empire who loved to feed human flesh to foreign dignitaries. [24]

Such tales as this that come out of Africa, even from my missionary uncle, seem too barbarous to be true. Post European Africa has become a continent of lawless disorder comparable to the nineteenth century American West. In fact, it is certainly far worse.

Consider the Democratic Republic of Congo, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa. This state (if it can be called that) has been more or less at war since 1997. Well over five million people have been killed in the last five years alone. The region has been termed an “eternal war zone.” [25]

The Sudan is the next largest country in the region. The country split in half in 2011. That separation was the result of the Second Sudanese Civil War which started in 1983 and still rages on as I write these words. Sudan has been more or less at war for the last 30 years. [26]

The third largest Afroethnic country is Chad. Chad has been labeled a “failed state” by Fund for Peace. [27] Various armed rebel groups roam the country. The only reason any government exists in Chad is that the French are backing a puppet regime in the capital.

Chad and Mali made headlines in 2012 when a band of roving Islamic thugs wielding pick axes and Kalashnikovs decided to destroy the ancient tombs in Timbuktu. [28] The tombs were formally listed as “world heritage sites” by the United Nations.

Although we could go on evaluating the catastrophe that is post European Africa it would eventually become redundant. It suffices to say that six of the world’s top (or bottom) 10 failed states are in Africa (another one, Haiti, is Afroethnic). [27]

The whole sub-Saharan Afroethnic region is home to bands of wandering lawless armed tribes of rapists and bandits unconcerned with order or stability. The officially recognized “leaders” routinely rob their people and foreign aid groups to satisfy their greed.

The Council on Foreign Relation’s website says that Africa loses over $150 billion to corruption every year. [29] That number dwarfs the $22.5 billion the region receives within the same time period from Western generosity. [29] Why would anyone hurl their compassionate gifts into the black hole Africa has become? Afroethnic governments currently steal more from their people then European colonialists ever did.

In 'Africa: A Biography of a Continent,' John Reader sums up the post-colonial post-European African era with his introduction to the final chapter:

“The Dreams of Africa becoming a continent of peaceful democratic states quickly evaporated. More than 70 coups occurred in the first thirty years of independence. By the 1990s few states preserved even the vestiges of democracy. One-party states, presidents-for-life, and military rule became the norm; resources were squandered as the elite accumulated wealth and the majority of Africans suffered. Nigeria and Rwanda exemplify the nightmare; South Africa preserves a flickering hope of transforming dreams into reality.” [30]
Reader wrote these words in 1998, only three years after South Africa’s rebirth as a politically Afroethnic nation. The hopes he put in South Africa redeeming the continent would be misplaced. As we now know, South Africa is descending rapidly to the level of corruption, poverty, and chaos that characterizes its fellow African states. The whole of Africa is being enveloped in a nightmare.


Blacks recreated African squalor in Haiti.
Perhaps someone will argue Africa is poor because of bad geography, and Detroit is ruined because of American “racism.” These excuses cannot be given for Haiti.

Haiti is considered a “failed state” by the Fund for Peace. [27] Haiti has the highest percentage of people of African ancestry in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti is also the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. [31]

Coincidence? I think not.

No one can blame climate/geography for Haiti’s failures. The island sits next to Puerto Rico; the most developed and richest country in all of Latin America. [32]

Puerto Rico is the Caribbean’s wealthiest country. It comes as little surprise that it also has the Caribbean’s most Euroethnic population (Euro-Haitians: 1-3%, Euro-Puerto Ricans: 76.2%)? [31] [32]

Although Wikipedia is not always reliable, the online encyclopedia opens its article on the “Economy of Puerto Rico” with this passage:

“The economy of Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and as the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum... The geography of Puerto Rico and its political status are both determining factors on its economic prosperity, primarily due to its relatively small size as an island; its lack of natural resources used to produce raw materials, and, consequently, its dependence on imports.” [33]
Haiti’s population is three times larger than Puerto Rico’s. Haiti has three times the land area of Puerto Rico. Why, then, is Haiti’s total economic output less than 14% that of Puerto Rico’s? [31] [32]

Another argument used to excuse Africa’s poverty is that Afroethnic countries were under colonial rule until the 1960s. The argument suggests that if Europeans had granted independence to Afroethnic countries earlier they would now be more developed.

The problem: Haiti has been independent from colonial rule for 212 years. Puerto Rico has never been free. To this very day, Puerto Rico is still ruled by a colonial power (the United States), and yet remains light-years ahead of Haiti.

One last note on Haiti, Haiti is a perfect example of how Marxist economics cannot be blamed for the failure of Afroethnic societies. Haiti has embraced the free market to such an extent that leftists routinely blame the country's poverty on capitalism.
[31] The country remains in impoverished shambles.


High IQ Japanese succeeded in imitating white civilization in Asia.
The Japanese serve as a useful contrast to low IQ Afroethnics.

African Americans are still undeveloped five centuries after being introduced to civilized society, and Africa is still savage and chaotic despite being nurtured and instructed by Europeans for over 150 years. The Japanese, however, quickly developed European technology on their small island in the time between first contact with the West and the era when the West could have conquered and colonized them. [34]

The Portuguese conducted trade with the Africans (for slaves) since the sixteenth century. These Africans, however, never developed technology or learned anything from the developed Europeans. Africans remain primitive to this present day.

In 1854, American Commodore Matthew Perry anchored his armored battleship off the coast of Japan and forced the Japanese to accept trade with the Americans. Upon seeing the mammoth warship, the Japanese realized they were in trouble. They knew if they failed to modernize they would be dominated by the superior Americans.

Unlike Afroethnics, who never had any idea of developing in pace with Europeans, the Japanese (who possess an average IQ equal to that of Europeans)  rapidly modernized.
[35] Only fifty years later, they were able to defeat the Russian Empire in the Russo-Japanese War, and establish themselves as a kind of colonial power in the Far East. They did all of this modernization despite few natural resources and a small geographical land area.

Euroethnics and North East Asians have proven themselves capable of sustaining Western Civilization. On the other hand, those of African ethnicity will hopelessly continue to recreate the Heart of Darkness wherever they go.


After reflecting upon history, it is impossible to believe that any people group of sub-Saharan African ethnicity is capable of sustaining Western institutions, prosperity, and living standards.

In three divergent situations: the modern post-white flight American city, post-colonial Africa, and long liberated Haiti, Afroethnics as a group have miserably failed to maintain anything resembling Western civilization.

In all of these situation, thriving well-constructed societies were given away to those of African heritage. In the case of Detroit, arguably the most prosperous city within the most prosperous country, was given to the most prosperous Afroethnics in the world. Within decades, it became a post-apocalyptic landscape.

In Africa, Europeans constructed entire workable modern societies from wild untamed wilderness (Africa was a blank spot on the map).  These white colonialists constructed something out of nothing and gave what they built back to the native inhabitants. It was perhaps the largest free gift in world history. Within decades Afroethnics plunged Africa into chaos, and forced those of European descent to feed billions of their starving children.

How can we imagine, after witnessing such catastrophic collapses of anything subjected to Afroethnic management, that any semblance of Western civilization can be maintained by that people group?

Everywhere Afroethnics live they recreate Africa; whether in Haiti or Detroit, Columbus or Timbuktu. Giving our civilization over to people of African descent is like making Africa (the nightmare) into a social model for the future.

School children are always told they must learn history lest they repeat it. The lesson of what Euroethnic Westerners should not repeat has never been more clearly spelled out for them than when considering the issue of ethnic pluralism. To leave America in the hands of minorities, and specifically those of African descent, is nothing short of civilizational suicide.

A final note. Many Christians argue that the Christian religion would heal all poverty and crime if people would only embrace it. Contrary to this notion, African Americans and Haitians have been overwhelmingly Christian for centuries. African Americans are considerably more religious than European Americans, [36] and yet they remain far behind their European peers. The populations of many impoverished African countries have the highest church attendance records of any place on earth. Embracing the Christian faith will not civilize those of African descent. God has created them fundamentally different.



[1] "Architect Louis Kamper Made Detroit the 'Paris of the West'" Michigan Radio. September 1, 2014. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[2] "Table 23. Michigan - Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Large Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990." United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[3] "Detroit (city), Michigan." United States Census Bureau. December 2, 2015. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[4] Sugrue, Thomas. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton University, 2000. 261-262.

[5] Kersey, Paul. "Escape from Detroit: The Collapse of America's Black Metropolis." April, 2012.

[6] "TV Made In Michigan." Michigan Film and Digital Media Office. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[7] "Z World Detroit." May 1, 2012. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[8] Kimball, Harry. "Battered Detroit Plans to Raze 25% of City." Newser. March 1, 2010. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "Battered Detroit wouldn’t have to struggle to pay for services in the vast areas of the city that are essentially abandoned if they didn’t exist—so it’s going to bulldoze them. Mayor Dave Bing did the calculus on a $300 million budget deficit and the 33,500 empty houses and 91,000 empty residential lots and came up with the solution."

[9] Hargreaves, Steve. "Hunger Hits Detroit's Middle Class." CNN Money. August 1, 2009. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "On a side street in an old industrial neighborhood, a delivery man stacks a dolly of goods outside a store. Ten feet away stands another man clad in military fatigues, combat boots and what appears to be a flak jacket. He looks straight out of Baghdad. But this isn't Iraq. It's southeast Detroit, and he's there to guard the groceries."

[10] "Detroit's Unemployment Rate Is Nearly 50%, According to the Detroit News." Huffington Post Business. March 18, 2010. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "Officially, Detroit's unemployment rate is just under 30 percent. But the city's mayor and local leaders are suggesting a far more disturbing figure - the actual jobless rate, they say, is closer to 50 percent."

[11] "Detroit Has 8 Murders, 33 Shootings in 5 Days; No Outrage." Examiner. May 23, 2012. Accessed December 6, 2015.

"Enter At Your Own Risk: Police Union Says ‘War-Like’ Detroit Is Unsafe For Visitors." CBS Detroit. October 6, 2012. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[12] Cook, Rebecca. "Detroit Police Chief Ralph Godbee Resigns amid Sex Scandal." NBC News. October 1, 2012. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[13] "Report: Nearly Half Of Detroiters Can’t Read." CBS Detroit. May 1, 2012. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[14] Berman, Laura. "Does DPS Leader's Writing Send Wrong Message?" The Detroit News. March 1, 2010. Accessed November 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "The president of the Detroit school board, Otis Mathis, is waging a legal battle to steer the academic future of 90,000 children, in the nation's lowest-achieving big city district. He also acknowledges he has difficulty composing a coherent English sentence."

[15] "Decline of Detroit." Wikipedia. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "The city of Detroit, Michigan, has gone through a major economic and demographic decline in recent decades."

[16] Higley, Stephen. "Top 25 Black Neighborhoods." The Higley 1000. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[17] "China's Great Armada." National Geographic. July 1, 2005. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[18] "A Chronological List of Independence Dates for Africa." Accessed December 6, 2015.

[19] Balls, Andrew. "Why South African Incomes Declined." The National Bureau of Economic Research. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "In Incomes in South Africa Since the Fall of Apartheid (NBER Working Paper No. 11384), co-authors Murray Leibbrandt, James Levinsohn, and Justin McCrary document that decline and attempt to explain what has happened. They show that average incomes of South African men and women fell by about 40 percent between 1995 and 2000, and note that there has been little improvement since then."

[20] Smith, David. "Quarter of Men in South Africa Admit Rape, Survey Finds." The Guardian. June, 2009. Accessed December 1, 2015.
EXCERPT: "One in four men in South Africa have admitted to rape and many confess to attacking more than one victim, according to a study that exposes the country's endemic culture of sexual violence. Three out of four rapists first attacked while still in their teens, the study found. One in 20 men said they had raped a woman or girl in the last year. South Africa is notorious for having one of the highest levels of rape in the world. Only a fraction are reported, and only a fraction of those lead to a conviction."

[21] Rohrer, Finlo. "How Dangerous Is South Africa?" BBC News. May 1, 2010. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "Each day an average of nearly 50 people are murdered. In addition to these 18,000 murders each year, there are another 18,000 attempted murders."

[22] "Murder Rate in the United States and Germany." Atlantic Review. October 5, 2006. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "Among Germany's 82 million citizens there have been 794 murders in 2005.  That's two more murders than in 2004."

[23] Obama, George. "Homeland: An Extraordinary Story of Hope and Survival." Amazon. 2010. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[24] Klaas, Brian. "The Cannibal Emperor of Bangui and Africa’s Forgotten Conflict." Vice Magizine. September 1, 2014. Accessed December 6, 2015.
EXCERPT: "He also relished feeding accused criminals to his personal crocodiles and lions at his lavish Villa Kolongo. Worst of all, Bokassa was allegedly a cannibal, keeping human flesh in his kitchen that he supposedly served to unsuspecting guests. During the coronation ceremony, the newly crowned emperor turned to a French minister in attendance and whispered, 'You never noticed, but you ate human flesh.'"

[25] Vattikonda, Niharika. "The Democratic Republic of the Congo: An Eternal War Zone." International Policy Digest. November 27, 2015. Accessed December 6, 2015.

[26] "South Sudan Profile - Timeline." BBC News. August 1, 2015. Accessed December 7, 2015.

[27] Messner, J.J., and Kendall Lawrence. "Failed States Index 2013: The Troubled Ten." Fund for Peace. June 1, 2013. Accessed December 7, 2015.
LIST: Somalia, DR Congo, Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, Yemen, Afghanistan, Haiti, Central African Republic, Zimbabwe.

[28] "Tombs in Timbuktu's Djingareyber Mosque 'destroyed'" BBC News. July 10, 2012. Accessed December 7, 2015.

[29] Hanson, Stephanie. "Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa." Council on Foreign Relations. August 6, 2009. Accessed December 7, 2015.

Gaboitsiwe, Thato. "Africa: Cry the Beloved Continent." Linkedin. November 28, 2014. Accessed December 7, 2015.
EXCERPT: "A study in 2002 by African Union (AU), estimated that the continent loses approximately $150 billion of its revenues to corruption annually."

[30] Reader, John. Africa: A Biography of the Continent. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1998. 663.

[31] "Central America and Caribbean: Haiti." Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed December 7, 2015.
EXCERPT: "Haiti is a free market economy that enjoys the advantages of low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population are among Haiti's most serious impediments to economic growth . . . Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty."

[32] "Central America and Caribbean :: Puerto Rico." Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed December 7, 2015.

[33] "Economy of Puerto Rico." Wikipedia. Accessed December 7, 2015.

[34] "Japan in the 19th Century." Japan in the 19th Century. Accessed December 7, 2015. 4/Japan in the 19th century.htm.
EXCERPT: "In 1853 American Matthew Perry threatened to bombard the Japanese capital if they did not open up to American trade.  Japan opened itself to foreign influence and, as in China, westerners residing in Japan were not subject to Japanese laws. There was a backlash against foreigners in the 1860s.  The samurai, using surplus weapons from America’s Civil War - which had just ended, defeated the shogun’s army. This delivered a clear message about the supremacy of western military technology. The Meiji seized control in 1871 and began a period of reforms that would go much further than that of Russia."

[35] Gottfredson, Linda. "Mainstream Science on Intelligence: An Editorial With 52 Signatories, History, and Bibliography." University of Deleware. 1995. Accessed November 19, 2015.

[36] "A Religious Portrait of African-Americans." Pew Research Centers Religion Public Life Project RSS. January 29, 2009. Accessed December 7, 2015.
EXCERPT: "African-Americans are markedly more religious on a variety of measures than the U.S. population as a whole, including level of affiliation with a religion, attendance at religious services, frequency of prayer and religion’s importance in life. Compared with other racial and ethnic groups, African-Americans are among the most likely to report a formal religious affiliation."